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Antonym is a  word that means the opposite of another word.      ‘good’ is an antonym of ‘bad.’

accept x refuse kind x cruel
ability 1nability  knowledge x Ignorance
acceptance x refusal/rejection  lack x Abundance
Advance X Retreat  .law x Inequity
adversity X Prosperity  length x Width
affluence X Poverty  .Liberty X Slavery
ancestor X Descendant  Master X Servant
Aristocracy X Democracy  Melody X discord









X oblivion
Arrival X Departure Miser X Spendthrift
Ascent X Descent Mistress X Maid
Attachment X Detachment Motion X Rest
Attack X Defense night X day
bring x take new x old
Body X Soul Pain X Pleasure
Boon X Bane Patriot X Traitor
Brave X Coward Peace X War
Care X Neglect Plaintiff X Defendant
Confidence X Diffidence Poetry X Prose
Consent X Dissent Poison X Antidote
Creation X Destruction Praise X Blame
Debit X Credit predecessor X Successor
Debtor X Creditor Presence X Absence
Defense X Offense Pride X Humility
Deficit X Surplus Prosperity X Adversity
Dwarf X Giant Punishment X Reward
Elevation X Depression Question X Answer
Enjoyment X Suffering Recovery X Relapse
Entrance X Exit Right X Left/wrong
Failure X Success roar x Whisper
Flattery X Detraction Ruler X Subject
Fortune X Misfortune Saint X Sinner
Freedom X Slavery Simplicity X Complexity/


Friend X Enemy Smile X Sigh
Front X Rear Storm X Calm
gain X Loss Synthesis X Analysis
glory X Shame Theory X Practice
gratitude X Ingratitude Time X Eternity
guest X Host Top X Bottom
happiness X Misery Tragedy X comedy
haste X leisure Unity X Diversity
head X Tail/foot Use X Abuse
heaven x Hell/earth Victory X Defeat
hero x villain Violence X Non-violence
honour x dishonour Virtue X Vice
hope x Hopeless/despair Volunteer X Conscript
imagination x reality Water X Land
Whole X Part Foreign X Native
Wisdom X Folly Frank X Reserved
Word X Deed Friendly X Hostile
Work X Rest Fresh X Stale
Absolute X Relative Full X Empty
Abstract X Concrete Gain X Lose
Absurd X Reasonable Genuine X Spurious
Active X Passive  General X Particular
Affirmative X Negative Special X Polite
Ancient X Modern Hard X Soft/easy
Animate X Inanimate Heavy X Light
Barren X Fertile High X Low
Barbaric X Civil Honest X Dishonest/corrupt
Beautiful X Ugly Hot X Cold
Beneficial X Harmful humble X Proud/haughty
Big X Little Ill X Well
Blunt X Sharp Immanent X Transcendent
Brave(ry) X Coward(ice) Important X Unimportant
Busy X Idle Industrious X Idle
Broad X Broad Innocent X Guilty










Civilized X Uncivilized/wild  Kind X Cruel
Cheap X Dear Liberal X Conservative
cheerful X Gloomy Literate X Illiterate
clean X Dirty Literal X Figurative
clothed X Naked Logical X Illogical
common X Uncommon/rare Long X Short
concise X Elaborate Loud X Soft/low
cooked X Raw Male X Female
courageous X Timid Masculine X Feminine
dark X Light Material X Spiritual
Deep X Shallow Maximum X Minimum
Difficult X Easy mighty X  weak
Domestic X Wild Mortal X Immortal
Dull X Bright/interesting Native X Foreign
eligible X Ineligible Natural X Unnatural
Exotic X Indigenous New X Old
Explicit X Implicit Noble X Ignoble
Fair X Foul Nominal X Real/actual
False X True Objective X Subjective
Famous X Notorious/


Obverse X Reverse
Fast X Loose Odd X Even
Fine X Coarse Oral X Written
Fir X Flaccid original X Duplicate
flexible X Rigid polite X impolite
warm x Cool Vertical X Horizontal
wet x Dry Vigorous X Feeble
white x Black Voluntary X compulsory
weak x strong wild x tame
pure x polluted thoughtful x thoughtless
Positive X negative thick X thin
progressive X Retrogressive Laugh X Weep/cry
Quick X Slow Lead X Follow
Quiet X Noisy Like X Dislike
Rash X Cautious Love X Hate
Rational X Irrational Offer X Offer
Raw X Ripe Open X Open
Relative X Absolute Precede X Succeed/follow
Religious X Secular Rejoice X Lament
Rough X Smooth Remember X Forget
Sacred X Profane Reveal X Conceal
Sensitive X Callous Resist X Submit/surrender
Severe X Mild Sleep X Awake
Sick X Well Sink X Float
Sprightly X Dull teach X learn
Straight X Crooked/curved here X There
Strange X Familiar Now X Then
Strong X Weak Often X Seldom
Strict X Lenient Above X Below/beneath
Superior X Inferior At home X Abroad
Sweet X Sour/bitter For X Against
Tall X Short In X Out
Accept X Reject Off X On
Accuse X Defend Over X Under
Acquit X Convict/condemn up X down
Admit X Discharge/repudiate Abandon X Keep
Agree X Disagree/differ Abolish X Establish
Allow X Forbid Above X Below
Arrest X Release/free Abundance X Scarcity
Attract X Distract/repel Abstract X Concrete
Begin X End Acquit X Convict
Buy X Sell Admit X Expel
Compare X contrast Admire X Despise
Confess X Deny Adversity X Prosperity
Consent X Dissent Admonish X Praise
Create X Destroy Affirm X Deny
Earn X Spend Agreeable X Disagreeable
Encourage X Discourage Artificial X Natural
Expedite X Delay Ascend X Descend
Gather X Scatter Assent X Dissent
Go X Come Awake X Asleep
hide X Seek Asset X Liability
Vague X Definite Always X Never
wise x Foolish Attack X Defend
Hit x miss Arrogant X Humble
import x export awkward X Beautiful
Include x Exclude Alien X Native
increase x decrease Ample X Scanty
insert x Delete Amateur X Professional


Try to make sentences with the words given above.

It is easy to  exclude people from a conversation.

It is a good policy to include all the members in a discussion.












Homonyms and Homophones


                          HOMONYMS AND HOMOPHONES

Homonym is a word that sounds the same as another word but differs in meaning. Homonyms can refer to both homophones and homographs.

homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning and is spelled differently.

Homographs are words with the same spelling but having more than one meaning.

Homonym– Example- see -sea

Homograph -Example- band- band

Study the meaning and spelling of the words



advice guidance advise recommend



 alcoholic drink ail sick
alms charity arms  

part of the body










sacred place of worship





agree ascent  

to climb


band a group banned prevented,


bear animal,

to carry a weight

to tolerate

bare naked,





freedom against secrecy ,   to bring out


bale a heap or a bundle, eg. cotton
birth give life to berth sleeping place
bridal pertaining to a bride bridle control
blue colour blew  

to use pressure ,air




destroy brake to put a stop to
bred brought up bread food



to ask for  to propagate, canvas a board for painting , material
cease stop seize  

to catch with force


course path, a sphere of study coarse rough
coat item of clothing put on ,

to cover

court an institution for justice,

to run after


council a group of persons counsel give advice
desert arid land no water, to leave dessert  

fruit taken after a meal


die come to an end dye to colour
dissent disagree descent  

climb down



two , double


fight between two


flour fine powder floor ground
foul bad fowl bird
 fair  honest, just,

light coloured,

a place where all goods are sold

 fare  cost of a ticket,






 big grate grate flour to fine powder , grate vegetables
hail greet hale strong wind and rain
hole opening whole full
hoard to collect horde large crowd
lessen decrease lesson something to study
loan lend, borrow lone single



post male masculine
main most imp mien thick hair
maize corn maze confused, puzzle made of confusing paths
metal object mettle  

integrity ,strength


might possible mite a small amount



part of day , dark knight an important person
ore metal oar  pole to row a boat
pair two pear fruit, pare
pale lack of colour pail a bucket
peace calm piece small amount


peak topmost point peek a small glance
plain simple plane vehicle of transport,

a flat surface


plays dramas/games place  

a location


pole  a  post poll survey
pour to distribute pore an opening in the body

to look with concentration


pray a petition prey  

to depend on



principal main person, main amount principle  










reward/ award price cost
rain down pour reign rule
rein control , a strap for controlling a horse
raise to heighten race  

a run , a      community


raze to destroy
rite a custom write to note
right correct right direction
role a part roll  a list,  to move around


sale to buy or sell sail  


to move forward



sell to make a deal cell  

a part of the body,

a small room in a prison


sight view site a place
cite to quote


single soul  

atman : inner part, that which resides within


sore   angry soar  

fly high


sour bitter
stationery books, papers etc stationary  

still , no movement





rob steel metal
story a tale storey  

part of a building





in one direction strait narrow
tale story tail to follow, an appendage at the back of the body
tied to bind tide to get over, a part of water
veil covering vale a place , a valley
wail to cry
vine grape creeper wine a drink
whine to complain
vile wicked while during
wait to expect something to happen weight  





waste  unwanted, unnecessary, useless waist  

part of the body


wave ripple on the sea

surge in activity

moving the hand

waive to give up something

to refrain from


weak not strong week days
whole full or complete hole an opening
yoke  to tie yolk Inner part of egg


Make sentences with the words .

Bring out your creativity..

This is a tale of a cat without a tail.

Don’t whine for wine.

I want to see the sea.

You can sell the cell.

The robber wanted to steal the steel box.

It’s not right to follow rites in a blind fashion.

He was the lone individual to take a loan.






Words in different parts of speech

Same words with different meanings.

Read and understand the sentences.

Air          :               This air is pure.

You should not always air your views.

Don’t put on airs.

Bar         :               I want a bar of chocolate.

Don’t bar him from entering the room.

He is practicing in the bar.

Book      :               Please give me your book.

I want to book my ticket.

The police tried to book the thief.

Bank      :               Don’t bank on him.

He loves to sit on the bank of the river.

You have to open an account in the bank.

Act         :               I love to act in plays.

Don’t try to act smart.

This is a one- act play.

Principal:              Who is the principal of your college?

I want to keep the principal intact.

Please credit the interest on the principal into my account.

Place     :              From which place do you come?

What place did you secure?

Account                   I want to open an account.

He gave an interesting account of his journey.

It is good to maintain an account.

He lost his grade on account of his illness.

Let us place him in the accounts department.

Count:                 Can you count the birds on the tree?

Don’t count on him. He will not join us.

On which count are you punishing him?

Race      :             They are from a primitive race.

I always participate in the race.

Face       :             Wash your face.

I cannot face him.

Plant      :             The plant has withered.

Please don’t plant such ideas in his mind.

The plant has been closed down.

Industry:              The secret of success lies in industry.

The industry is on a profit spree.

Hand     :              Wash your hand.

Give me a hand please.

The thief gave the police a hand.

He has no hand in this matter.

Trace     :           The police could not trace him.

Trace the map.

The thief did not leave any trace for the police.

Interest              She has an abiding interest in painting.

What is the present rate of interest?

Play        :           I love to play chess.

Have you seen the play ‘Harischandra’?

Board:                How much did you pay for your board and lodging.

I have to board the train in a few hours.

Just look at that sign board.

Water:                 Please water the plants.

There is no water in the tank.

The Management tried to water down the project.

Dear      :             Vegetables have become dear.

The matter is dear to my heart.

Drop      :             There isn’t a drop of oil.

Don’t drop the vase.

The Govt. will not drop the issue.

The captain did not want to drop the young player from the team.

Bore      :             I think Geography is a real bore.

You have to bore deep into ground to get water.

He bore the weight with a smile.

Head     :             Don’t turn your head.

Murthy will head the search party.

He has no head for such matters.

I think we have to head towards the north.

Back       :            I have a catch in my back.

When will he be back?

We must back our friends.

Can I back the car here?

Light      :            This bag is very light.

There is no light in the balcony.

The police were unable to throw any light on the crime.

File         :            They walked in a file.

File the papers.

Put the papers in the new file.

It is not easy to file an FIR.

Frame:                 It’s a beautiful frame.

Don’t frame charges on innocent people.

House:                The house is magnificent.

Many valuables are housed in the museum

Block     :            The building blocks the view of the river.

He lives in the second block.

Cover:                The thief took cover in the bushes.

Cover your eyes.

Give me a cover.

Grave:               Don’t look so grave.

This is the grave of  Ruth.

The situation was grave.

Manual:             He does a lot of manual labour.

Do you have the manual?

Sign        :         Sign the letter.

There is no sign of the fishermen.

Pine       :          The pine tree is a sight to see.

The old always pine for the past.

Table     :           Put the book on the table.

The document has to be tabled.

Pen        :           This is a Parker pen.

You must always pen your thoughts.

Point     :             Don’t point your fingers.

The pencil has a sharp point.

There is no point in arguing.

You have a point there.

He was unable to score a single point.

Sleep     :             Don’t sleep over the matter.

I had a good sleep.

Copy      :            Do not copy others

Do you have a copy of this photograph?

Slip         :           Give me a slip of paper.

Be careful, you may slip.

The thief gave a slip to the police.

Bat         :            I have bought a new bat.

There are many bats in this ancient temple.

He did not bat an eyelid.

Wave    :              The wave in the sea looks beautiful.

The leader waved to the crowds

There is a wave of support for him.

Fine       :              The absentees have to pay a fine.

It was a fine deal.

The weather is fine.

Train      :               You should train the horse.

They walked in a train.

I missed the train.

Left        :                Turn to the left.

He left his bag at home.

Pass       :               Please pass the book to me.

You have to pass the mountain.

Will I pass  the driving test?

This too will pass.

Bear       :               Can you bear the weight?

Is that a bear?

Right      :               He is always right.

Use your right hand.

Sound:                  I am in sound health.

What a terrible sound!

Might:                    I might find the treasure.

He is a man of might.

Firm       :               He works in the big firm.

My father is very firm in his views.

Rule       :               This is an important rule.

Asoka’s rule was just.

Match:                  The match was delayed due to rain.

He is no match to Ali.

My parents are on the lookout  for a match for my brother.

Stick       :             Take a big stick.

Stick it on the wall.

Please don’t stick on to old ideas.

Seal        :            Let us seal the deal.

Seal the cover before you post it.

Are there any seals in the river?

Minute:                Wait a minute, won’t you?

Don’t worry about the minute details.

Cold       :             It’s very cold.

She gave him a very cold look.

Fire        :             Light the fire.

Your boss will fire you.

Blow      :              Blow out the candle.

The robber dealt a terrible blow.

Soil         :            This soil is fertile.

Don’t soil your clothes.

Paper    :             I want a sheet of paper.

He presented a paper at the conference

Root      :            Don’t pull out the root.

Look into the root of the matter.

Rock      :            That’s a beautiful rock.

Rock the cradle.

Fare       :            What’s the fare to Chennai?

The hostel fare is good.

Gun       :             He is a big gun.

The robber was armed with a gun.

Field      :             The farmer lost his field.

The Minister refused to field any questions.

The players left the field.

Paint      :               Is there any paint left?

Don’t paint him as a coward.

Star        :              He is the star attraction of the crowd.

He did not star in the film.

Did you see the falling star?

Mine     :               He is a mine of information.

That book is mine.

He works in a mine.

Mind     :               My mind is in a turmoil.

Please don’t mind me.

Farm      :             I want an application form.

It’s difficult to form an opinion.

You must be in form.

Please form a circle.

Account               I want to open an account.

It is good to maintain an account.

He lost his grade on account of his illness.

He gave an interesting account of his journey

Notice. :              I did not notice the change.

I have to give one month notice to my boss.

Have you read the notice?


Try to make different sentences with the words given above.





Migration and Immigration




migratin and immigration


                                  Migration and Immigration:

Migration and immigration are the most commonly debated topics.

Migration within the country is a regular phenomena.

Migrant labour is cheap. Work is seasonal.migration

They learn more than they do in their villages.

They are prepared to live in cramped dwellings in order to make both ends meet.

Very often, they leave behind children and family and toil to sustain themselves and also to send money to the family.


Many people immigrate or move to another country for better opportunities and higher earnings.


Many people immigrate or move to another country for better opportunities and higher earnings.

Many of them are from poorer and less developed countries.

Employment opportunities, better health care and some factors that encourage migration.

In many countries it is observed that the immigrants contribute to the economy in many ways.

They have diverse skills that can be utilised in productive way.

The immigrants send money to the family back at home.

The presence of immigrants adds to the cultural diversity of nation.

Multi-cultural societies can strengthen bonds and foster a better understanding of people, life-styles and customs and traditions.

The flip side of immigration is that it can result in racism.

It is sometimes felt that immigrants are usurping the livelihood of the local people.

In some cases, the immigrants are accorded a subordinate position and paid less.

Governments may create visa problems for certain workers.


Indeed it is essential to control immigration and migration to ensure that people will be able to face any kind of  emergency.




Global Citizens


Developing and Developed Countries

Developing countries:

One of the greatest problems in developing countries is the level of economy.

Healthcare, education and infrastructure have to be strengthened.

There should be equitable distribution of resources.

Employment opportunities have to be created.

Export import balance must be maintained.

Proper planning and policy implementation is a vital importance.

Traditional skills must be put to use .

Over dependence on rich countries must be curtailed.

Multinational companies should be allowed but should not be allowed to control local interests.

WHOs and charitable institutions with proper guidelines should be strengthened and encouraged.

The government has a responsibility to give equal priority to all sections of people.

Basic amenities have to be provided.

Work culture should not only be encouraged but also strengthened  through liberal practices.

Merit has to be recognized and awarded.

It is becoming increasingly difficult to draw a line of demarcation between developed and developing in the case of some countries.

Developing countries  are  generally considered to be  poor in economy and having a lot of illiteracy.


Developed Countries:

The developed countries are those having a robust economy and great power.

They are often engaged in a race for greater power.

While opening their doors for immigrants they are not always fair and impartial.

They can be ruthless in policy implementation.

They offer quality healthcare and educational facilities.

Infrastructure and Technology have a place of pride.

Opportunities for higher research are  abundant.

They are the sources for dissemination of advances in Science and Technology.

They are in the forefront in the field of innovation.

They provide great assistance in different ways, specially in times of distress and


They have an upper hand in terms of wealth and progress.




There are many aspects to globalisation.

Goods produced in one country become easily accessible to others.

The economy is strengthened.

Trade between countries facilitates free movement of goods.

Political relationships are fostered.

Investment opportunities and mutual assistance increase the process of give and take.

Increase in job opportunities reduces poverty.

Multi National Companies also encourage a spirit of competition.

However, globalisation is a mixed blessing.

Companies tend to hire workers on a lower pay, which results in exploitation.

There is no job security as companies may wind up at any time.

Traditional jobs can be crushed.

In developing countries, MNCs can take the upper hand.

It is essential to have proper laws and agreements:

Terms and conditions must be carefully mentioned by the Government.

Global regulations of salaries must be a priority.

Tariff rates are often a subject of controversy.

Resource exploitation and environmental pollution must be checked.

Thus globalisation is not always beneficial.

The pros and cons must be taken into consideration.

A Healthy Nation

A Healthy Nation:

The economy of a nation depends upon the health of its citizens.

The health of a nation hinges upon its levels of prosperity.

The prosperity of a nation can be gauged / measured by attitudes of the people.

A society that considers material comforts and luxuries to be of prime importance can never be humane.

Literacy and health are of paramount importance for a happy society.

An efficient social system security instils a sense of confidence in the citizens.

Transparency and accountability are essential to strengthen the fabric of a nation.

The gap between the haves and the have nots must be a healthy one.

A healthy nation is one that is inclusive where the people do not feel a sense of alienation and isolation.

Rights and duties being complimentary should be followed by one and all.

People should be encouraged to work for the basic amenities of life.

Work culture must be a part and parcel of life.

A nation that respects its flora and fauna and in communion with lives close to nature will be both healthy and happy.

The real wealth of a nation lies in the happiness levels of its citizens.

Respect for art and culture and history play a pivotal role in uniting the people.

It is neither the size nor the economy of a nation that is conducive / contributing to health and happiness.

In the ultimate analysis good leadership, a sense of responsibility in the citizens and a proper flow of benefits to all sections of society promotes confidence and happiness.

The real criterion of a healthy nation is the involvement of its people in day to day activities with a spirit of enthusiasm and positivity.

A robust economy, healthy and hardworking citizens with good levels of literacy and ample opportunities for creativity lead to a sense of fulfillment.




My Most Valuable Possession

What I value the most.

Model 1:

I love painting. I have a box of paints. The paints have become dry. I will never throw away the box of paints, because my Uncle gifted it to me when I was a small child.

I would always carry the box with me. I would never leave it anywhere. It is my most valuable possession.

It is a token of my passion for drawing and painting.

Model 2:

I have two very valuable possessions.

One pen is an old one. It belongs to my Grandfather. It looks unique. It seems this was the only pen that he used throughout his life.

There is another pen; the one that my father used to write his thesis.

Now, I have two very valuable pens. I should keep them carefully.

They are ink pens. One has a gold nib.

They are so beautiful and precious  that sometimes I think that they are fit to be kept in a museum.

Let’s start speaking

What is your most valuable possession?

It can be ………….

A wrist watch

A camera

A book of moral stories

A letter

An ink filler

Some vocabulary

precious       dear         old       antique         illustrated         primitive

hard bound    expensive    simple      brand    hand written   congratulatory

prized    priceless  black and white   reel   outmoded   rare   interesting  simple



My Favorite Teacher

My Favorite Teacher:

Model 1:

My favourite teacher is my Mathematics teacher.

His name is Ramulu.

When I was in my class vii, he taught us mathematics.

I never used to write anything in my notebook.

I was afraid to go to school.

He took great care of me.

He dinned in  the concepts which I was unable to understand.

He motivated every student in the classroom.

He drove away the fear of maths in us..

He taught us well.

I keep in touch with him even today.

Try to pick out the key words in each sentence..

Ex.  afraid


Who was afraid?  Why was he afraid? Did he get rid of his fear? How did he get rid of his fear?

Write five sentences about your friend/ relative who had a fear of something/ somebody and how he got rid of it.



My favourite teacher is Uma.

She taught us English.

She used to sing very well.

I used to be very naughty, when I was at school.

My teacher made me sit in the first row.

At that time, I was very poor at English language.

She helped me to get through English in my examinations.

She encouraged me to participate in extra-curricular activities.

I  am thankful to her  in every phase of my life.


What attracted you to your teacher?   Her musical talent.

How were you able to build your English competency? Three reasons…..


A healthy mind and a healthy body

A healthy mind and a healthy body:

Health is in your hands.

Physical health and mental health are two important components of health.

Physical health involves healthy, hygienic life-style.

Proper diet, regular timings, exercise and adequate rest are crucial for health.

Poverty is one of the greatest setbacks to health.

Pollution and climate change result in health hazards.

Over dependence on medication has to be monitored.

Self-medication with over the counter drugs is harmful.

Allopathy, homoeopathy, naturopathy, ayurveda are different forms of medication and treatment.

Stress is one of the major factors that influences health.

The fast pace of modern living induces stress.

Work-life balance creates stress.

Working long hours and trying to meet strict deadlines can be challenging.

Work pressure, stiff competition and over ambitious goals trigger unhappiness and create pressure.

Children experience stress due to unrealistic expectations from parents.

Peer pressure and desire for wealth and high-class living is very rampant.

The tendency towards superficial living is becoming a fashion.

Life-style has to be monitored.

The simple joys of life have to be experienced and enjoyed.

It is important to learn to relax.

The power of silence has to be cultivated and explored.

Ailments like stress diabetics are on the rise.

Alternative medicine has to be used with scientific awareness.

Positive thinking goes a long way in strengthening health.

A pure and healthy ambience can be created with simple living and high thinking.

Anxiety and restlessness lead to hormonal imbalance.

All said and done, a peaceful life leads to a healthy life.

Tensions, worries and anxieties have to be replaced with acceptance and contentment.

Living on an intellectual and spiritual plane elevates the mind and strengthens the body.

People in the past comparatively led a more peaceful and healthy life.

Technological advances and proliferation of diseases sum to be proceeding hand in hand.

The outbreak of epidemics and pandemics serve as a reminder to humanity to be humane.

People living a life of purity are not immune to disease.

People like Stephen Hawking show us that the power of the mind is greater than that of the physical body.

A disciplined life is the key to happiness.