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Eco-tourism is a concept that has been catching on in the present days.

There are various factors that promote Eco-tourism.

The first is that there is a growing interest in the natural environment.

Then there is a corresponding recognition of the importance of conserving natural environment.

It has long term benefits to the climate, which in turn improves favorable weather .

The forest cover is increased due to responsible tourism.

Natural resources are preserved and protected.

Eco-tourism is primarily travel to study and admire the pristine beauty of nature and to conserve the fragile areas.

It is a joint learning experience in sustainable tourism and environmental management.

Eco-tourism stresses the appropriate use of all resources and also emphasizes community development.

It involves local people and (thus provided benefit to them) improves them.

It is a positive experience for both visitors and locals.

It is important to ensure that Eco-tourism does not become commercial tourism.

However, since money goes directly into the local communities, it can help in promoting nature art and culture.

The biodiversity of nature is protected and there will be dissemination of information regarding the conditions of the local communities.

Guided tours with a sense of responsibility rather than monetary consideration are of paramount importance.

The safaris and boating should be more for educational rather than recreational purposes.

The primary focus of Eco-tourism is not on entertainment but on understanding and getting closer to nature.


Vocabulary and phrases:

Catching in = becoming popular

Conserving = protecting

Benefits = uses

Preserved = kept intact

Pristine = pure

Fragile = delicate

Appropriate = correct

Ensure = safeguard

Dissemination = spread

Paramount = greatest





Over the years tourism has gained a lot of popularity.

In a country like India, every place has some kind of historical or cultural significance.

There is a tendency to combine a pilgrimage with tourism and sightseeing.

Whereas the South is famous for temples’ exquisite architecture, the North is known for forts and palaces. Besides temples and places of worship, the fascinating pilgrim centers in the Himalayan regions attract people from all parts of the country.

Each place has a legend associated with it.

The beauty of the mountains and increase in facilities for accommodation and transportation entice large number of tourists.

Guided tours, package tours, tour operators providing extra discounts are tempting factors promoting travel.

People today are more inclined to travel than in the past.

The nuclear family system makes travel  more affordable.

National seminars and conferences include a tour or sightseeing in the agenda.

Tourism boosts the economy.

One of the side effects of tourism is littering.

The discarded plastic and the carbon footprint can damage the ecosystem and increase pollution.

With travel to space becoming easier, tourism on earth cannot lag behind.

The Hospitality Industry plays a major role in tourism.

Tourism promotes employment and mirrors the diversity in the country.

Tourism provides a window to the world.


Vocabulary and phrases:

Over the years = passing of time

Significance = importance

Combine = put together

Exquisite= beautiful / wonderful

Fascinating = attractive

Attract = draw / tempt

Legend = story associated with the past

Entice = tempt / attract

More inclined = ready / willing

Affordable = not beyond one’s reach / can get

Boosts = increases / encourages / strengthens

Littering = making the place dirty

Discard = throw away

Lag behind = stay back

Hospitality industry = hotels / restaurants

Mirrors = reflects / shows

Diversity = differences

Window to = to show

Education for Life

Education for Life :

   ‘ Education  is the manifestation of the divinity within man’

Minimum compulsory education should be free.

Learning the three R`s should be mandatory.

Skill based education should be easily available.

Field trips and excursions should be encouraged.

Open book system can boost levels of learning.

                             Merit and industry should be given top priority.

Government infrastructure and facilities play a crucial role in education.

The grading system should be popularised.

Social service should be community service done with involvement and integrity.

Games and sports should be mandatory.

Classroom libraries, gardening, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities help in strengthening personality.

                                   The process of learning must be an enjoyable experience.

The marking system can lead to unhealthy competition and rivalry.

Learning by rote can be replaced by physical activity and creative thinking, thus bringing in an element of curiosity and affinity with nature.

Over dependence on computers in education results in plagiarism.

Cut, copy, paste becomes common.

Creativity and original thinking is stifled.

                                          Practical learning should supersede theoretical learning.

                                                   Learning should be for life, not for a living.



Priority = precedence

Crucial = decisive / essential

Affinity = likeness / kinship

Supersede = take the place of

Plagiarism = copying / breach of copyright

Stifled = suppressed / subdued

Lead to = direct to / show the way

Bring in = introduce

Result in = outcome

Help in = aid / assist / facilitate

Technology in Education


Technology is changing the teaching-learning process in myriad ways.

Digital classrooms and e-learning are becoming more popular.

Virtual classrooms and online teaching are coupled with video lectures.

Digital platforms offer the possibility of enlisting the best faculty from different parts of the world.

Shortage of qualified faculty is compensated through online resources.

The availability of the best faculty compensates the shortage of experienced faculty.

It lessens the burden of the teacher.

However, it is to be borne in mind that online teaching can never replace face-to-face teaching.

Leaving aside technical problems, the absence of face-to-face interaction can result in a kind of morbid learning.

It can also lead to a feeling of being trapped in a cramped environment.

The physical presence of the teacher provides a sense of bonding.

Real learning takes place in an atmosphere of natural freedom.

It is not always possible to have the required infrastructure.

Financial commitments may be higher than in offline teaching.

The audio-visual method can enhance the interest of the learner.

The chalk and board method may not be effective in large classrooms.

Monitoring students is not feasible in online teaching.

Character building and personality development take a back stage in online teaching.

Online teaching has its own share of benefits but can never replace one-to-one teaching.

The concept of online teaching is gaining greater popularity.

It is considered that online teaching is a more sophisticated method of teaching.

It is essential to strike on balance between online and offline teaching.

A judicious mix of online and offline teaching strengthens the process of real education.

To a certain extent, the use of technology is almost becoming mandatory in every sphere of life.

Technology in education is picking up fast and is becoming an integral part of the teaching-learning process.

Online teaching by itself can never substitute real teaching.

Time zones can affect online teaching.

The classroom immersion is absent.

Network accessibility and weak transmission reduce the impact of teaching.

While online teaching may come in handy in some cases, it can never replace classroom teaching.



Myriad = numerous / many

Enlisting = recruitment

Compensate = counterbalance / adjust for

Morbid = gloomy / low-spirited

Trapped = cornered / treed

Cramped = restricted / confined

Commitment = dedication / allegiance

Enhance = Improve / develop

Monitoring = tracking / supervising

Feasible = practicable / viable

Sophisticated = urbane / refined

Judicious = thoughtful / prudent

Mandatory = obligatory / compulsory


Some phrases:

To go in for = planned or agreed to do

To call for = publicly ask for / demand

To take up = to pursue

To cope with = deal effectively with

Bear in mind = to be mindful of

Put up with = tolerate / endure

Gaining ground = become more popular or accepted

Picking up fast = to increase speed / to improve activity

Come in handy = useful in a particular situation

Joint family system and Nuclear family system

                  JOINT FAMILY                         




                                                   The family is the base of society.

The joint family system is slowly being replaced by the nuclear family system.

Some of the factors contributing to the rise in nuclear families are better education, migrating for employment, technological advancement and the shrinking of the universe through globalisation.

Nuclear families have become the order of the day.

Greater awareness has resulted in the reduction of the size of the family.

Families of the older generation had an average of six to nine children.

The house would be bustling with children, uncles, aunts, cousins, parents and grandparents.

Agriculture was the predominant occupation.

There is a lot of give and take in joint families.

The concept of caring and sharing is inculcated automatically.

Elders shoulder the responsibility of running the house.

Joint families can inhibit the freedom of parents in some ways.

Some children tend to get pampered.

Greater despondency can sometimes result in shirking responsibility.

The atmosphere in a joint family may not always be conducive to character and personality development.

Nuclear families are the outcome of evolving societies.

The need to take up employment in distant places is an important factor in the spread of nuclear families.

The small size of the family encourages all the members to be aware of the overall activities in the house.

Parents have a greater say in making decisions.

Finances can be managed and utilised according to the needs and circumstances.

Children experience greater freedom to pursue their own interests.




Rise in = increase

The rise in crimes in cities is a major problem.

The rise in temperature is an outcome of global warming.

The rise in prices of essential goods is causing a lot of troubles.

Shrinking = becoming smaller

The borders between countries are shrinking.

Order of the day = very common

Parents listening to children is becoming the order of the day.

Bustling with = filled with

The hall was bustling with all kinds of activities.

Predominant = most popular or common / special

Give and take = Share or exchange

Give and take is the law of life.

Shoulder the responsibility = take charge of / take up the responsibility

No one was willing to shoulder the responsibility of organising the function.

Running the house = to manage

My brother has been given the responsibility of managing the house for two months.

Inhibit = prevent / limit

Parents should not inhibit the creativity in children.

Children do not have any inhibitions. They are free, frank and fearless.

Shirking responsibility = avoiding responsibility

It is common to find people in power shirking responsibility for unpleasant situations.

Distant = far away

Distinct = clear

The distance between the shop and the godown is 25 kms.

The picture is not very distinct.

Aware of = to know

Gopal was not aware of the accident.

It is important to be aware of the changes in the banking sector.

Greater say = involved in

People should have a greater say in the changes made by the administration.

To pursue = take up / follow

Ravi wants to pursue higher studies.

The police tried to pursue the thief.

Tend to = possibility of

Riches can make a man tend towards vices.


 Test the level of your vocabulary. Read the passage given and fill the blank with the right word. The initial and the final letters of the word are given. The form of the word may have to be changed.

employ         education          replace     facility       migrate        continue     celebrate   convenience

The nuclear family is slowly   r————–g   the  joint family system. Some of the major factors leading to this situation are  better e ———– l facilities, advancement in  technology and em ———– t opportunities.   The  m ————– n  from villages to cities either due to employment or for education has resulted in the disruption of the joint family system. The search for greener pastures has been f————  d through globalisation.However the joint family system has not become totally  obsolete. It  c———– s to flourish ,though in a different  way. Some members of the family  stay back and continue to live in the villages, while those who leave for employment make it a point to come back for an annual get together. This reunion can be either for festivals  or for some c———— n in the family.  In some cases all the members of the family travel to a  place that is comfortable and c ————- t to accommodate the members of the extended family. The nuclear families in the cities  also provide an opportunity for  sight seeing to the other members of the  extended family. This in turn promotes tourism. Tourism boosts the economy.Travel thus becomes very common.


Have a discussion:

Nuclear families are better than joint families.

Joint family system is no longer feasible.

Agricultural practices have to be strengthened.

Agricultural markets have to be formed by the locals themselves.

Technology should be deployed in a better manner.

Organic farming should be encouraged.

Community living should be strengthened through social, cultural and literary activities.

Activities like afforestation, social service for ensuring cleanliness and vigilance groups will go a long way in building a better society.

Concepts like dignity of labour, self dependence, awareness,  proper use of resources and basic literacy go a long way in promoting health and harmony, so very crucial for humanity.

The very concept of family has to be better understood.


Study the picture given below.




1 What kind of family do you see?

2 How many members of the family can you identify?

3 How many children can you see ?

4. How many couples can you identify?

5. Why are the two kids not seated in the middle?




Look at this family tree




1 How many children does Mr. Rao have?

2 How many children are married?

3 How many grandchildren does  Mr. Rao have?

4. How many couples can you see ?


Write a paragraph about the family.



Try to draw a family tree.

This is the family of Mr. Shekar.    He has six children.   The first three are boys , the next two are girls and the last one is  a boy  Four of them are married, the two girls and the first two boys. The boys have two kids each, a girl and a boy, while  the girls have one girl each. The daughter of the eldest son is married.



                                                                   India lives in the villages.










City Life

                 City life  as against life in a town or a village . 

There are various factors that make it imperative to live in cities.

                                                              High rise buildings and traffic.                   

                                                Life in a City   

Life in a city can be pretty chaotic.

There are innumerable factors that contribute to this chaotic condition in life.

One of the first and most important factors is the environment or the place or locality that you choose to

reside in.

Life in a city has its own share of ups and downs.

A crucial decision has to be taken to ensure that the interests of all the members in the family are taken into consideration.

This in turn necessitates a scouting out for suitable accommodation.

It is important to keep in mind, both budgetary constraints and levels of comfort and convenience.

Living in high-rise buildings or a small house comes with its own attendant advantages and disadvantages. The next major factor to be taken into consideration is commutation.

It is essential to strike a balance between time and mode of transportation or ease of transportation.

Travelling long distances can be time consuming and exhausting.

Traffic jams and congestion are a part and parcel of life.

It is possible to become exposed to the hazards of pollution.

There is greater exposure to life and society in a city.

There are greater avenues for employment in cities.

One can become isolated in cities.

Interaction can become superficial.

There are greater chances of children falling prey to drug abuse.

Youngsters should be monitored closely.

Excessive freedom can be misused.

Changes in life-style may also result in snobbishness.

People living in cities can become immune to the simple joys of living close to nature.

People are migrating from towns and villages to cities.



Important Vocabulary:

Chaotic: anarchic, confused, blurred, disorganised, disorderly, muddled

Out of control, out of step, all over the place

Contribute: give, grant, donate, add, assist, give to, add to, work toward, participate in, donate to

Environment: surroundings, setting, climate, atmosphere, conditions, circumstances, neighborhood, scene, locale

Reside in: live in

Crucial: important, essential, vital, pivotal, critical, central, main, serious, key, primary, great

Ups and downs:  good and bad

To assure someone is to remove someone’s doubts.

He was assured of a seat in the college.

To ensure something is to make sure it happens—to guarantee it.

Parents must ensure the safety of the children.

To insure something or someone is to cover it with an insurance policy.

Do you have an insurance for your car?

Constraints -limitations, restrictions, obstacles, barriers, hurdles, difficulties

Attendant – accompanying

Commutation    commuters are people who go from one part of  a city to another part by bus or other modes of transport / travel

Congestion – block     I have a congestion in my throat.

Hazards – dangers      Pollution is one of the greatest hazards in cities.

Exposure   –   City life provides an exposure to cosmopolitan society.

Avenues  –     Avenues to growth are limited in towns and villages.

Isolated  – feeling all alone   Raju felt isolated in the party.

Superficial  – No depth    Some of his statements are superficial.

Monitored  –   All the activities of the children are monitored by the teacher.

Excessive freedom   –  It is not good to give excessive freedom to teenagers.


Important Phrases:

Strike a balance –  We must learn to strike a balance between work and sleep.

Time consuming  -A hand woven shawl is a time consuming piece of work.

Part and parcel  –   Pain and pleasure are a part and parcel of life.

Scouting out for   –  searching for     He was scouting out for some better accomodation.

Keep in mind   –    remember   Keep in mind that you must return early.

Falling prey  – It is easy to fall prey to vices.

To look after  -Youngsters should be taught to look after the younger siblings.

To take care of   – Children should learn to take care of elders.




Reading Comprehension 1

Man may not know the right path, but if he has the sincere desire and determination to go forward nothing can prevent him.


Once there was a sincere devotee. He wanted to visit Varanasi, the holy place of lord Shiva. He did not know the way. In those days men had to travel on foot. He went in the southern direction and lost his way. However, he kept asking for the right direction. In course of time, he was able to turn towards the right direction and found the right path. Finally, he reached Varanasi. His strong desire to visit the holy place enabled him to reach his destination. Determination will always win in the end.

Improve your Vocabulary:
Find the antonym for the words given. These are words from the above passage.

  • Sincere
  • Holy
  • Those
  • Man
  • Lost
  • Loose
  • Right
  • Right
  • Able
  • Strong
  • Win
  • Forward
  • Old
  • Far
  • Tall
A ManXa woman

Reflect and Discuss on the above passage:

  • What does the word ‘pilgrim’ mean?
  • Have you heard of ‘pilgrim centers ‘?
  • Have you visited any holy place?
  • What are the major centers of pilgrimage in your state?
  • Do you think that pilgrimages are meant for old people?
  • What is the other name for Varanasi?
  • Who is the presiding deity at Varanasi?
  • Do you know anyone who has overcome obstacles, while trying to go on a pilgrimage?
  • What are the two factors necessary to attain one’s objective?
  • Have you ever had the desire to obtain or get anything?