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Migration and Immigration







Migration and Immigration:

Migration and immigration are the most commonly debated topics.

Migration within the country is a regular phenomena.

Migrant labour is cheap. Work is seasonal.

They learn more than they do in their villages.

They are prepared to live in cramped dwellings in order to make both ends meet.

Very often, they leave behind children and family and toil to sustain themselves and also to send money to the family.

Many people immigrate or move to another country for better opportunities and higher earnings.

Many people immigrate or move to another country for better opportunities and higher earnings.

Many of them are from poorer and less developed countries.

Employment opportunities, better health care and some factors that encourage migration.

In many countries it is observed that the immigrants contribute to the economy in many ways.

They have diverse skills that can be utilised in productive way.

The immigrants send money to the family back at home.

The presence of immigrants adds to the cultural diversity of nation.

Multi-cultural societies can strengthen bonds and foster a better understanding of people, life-styles and customs and traditions.

The flip side of immigration is that it can result in racism.

It is sometimes felt that immigrants are usurping the livelihood of the local people.

In some cases, the immigrants are accorded a subordinate position and paid less.

Governments may create visa problems for certain workers.

Indeed it is essential to control immigration.


Developing and Developed Countries

Developing countries:

One of the greatest problems in developing countries is the level of economy.

Healthcare, education and infrastructure have to be strengthened.

There should be equitable distribution of resources.

Employment opportunities have to be created.

Export import balance must be maintained.

Proper planning and policy implementation is a vital importance.

Traditional skills must be put to use .

Over dependence on rich countries must be curtailed.

Multinational companies should be allowed but should not be allowed to control local interests.

WHOs and charitable institutions with proper guidelines should be strengthened and encouraged.

The government has a responsibility to give equal priority to all sections of people.

Basic amenities have to be provided.

Work culture should not only be encouraged but also strengthened  through liberal practices.

Merit has to be recognized and awarded.

It is becoming increasingly difficult to draw a line of demarcation between developed and developing in the case of some countries.

Developing countries  are  generally considered to be  poor in economy and having a lot of illiteracy.


Developed Countries:

The developed countries are those having a robust economy and great power.

They are often engaged in a race for greater power.

While opening their doors for immigrants they are not always fair and impartial.

They can be ruthless in policy implementation.

They offer quality healthcare and educational facilities.

Infrastructure and Technology have a place of pride.

Opportunities for higher research are  abundant.

They are the sources for dissemination of advances in Science and Technology.

They are in the forefront in the field of innovation.

They provide great assistance in different ways, specially in times of distress and


They have an upper hand in terms of wealth and progress.




There are many aspects to globalisation.

Goods produced in one country become easily accessible to others.

The economy is strengthened.

Trade between countries facilitates free movement of goods.

Political relationships are fostered.

Investment opportunities and mutual assistance increase the process of give and take.

Increase in job opportunities reduces poverty.

Multi National Companies also encourage a spirit of competition.

However, globalisation is a mixed blessing.

Companies tend to hire workers on a lower pay, which results in exploitation.

There is no job security as companies may wind up at any time.

Traditional jobs can be crushed.

In developing countries, MNCs can take the upper hand.

It is essential to have proper laws and agreements:

Terms and conditions must be carefully mentioned by the Government.

Global regulations of salaries must be a priority.

Tariff rates are often a subject of controversy.

Resource exploitation and environmental pollution must be checked.

Thus globalisation is not always beneficial.

The pros and cons must be taken into consideration.

A Healthy Nation

A Healthy Nation:

The economy of a nation depends upon the health of its citizens.

The health of a nation hinges upon its levels of prosperity.

The prosperity of a nation can be gauged / measured by attitudes of the people.

A society that considers material comforts and luxuries to be of prime importance can never be humane.

Literacy and health are of paramount importance for a happy society.

An efficient social system security instils a sense of confidence in the citizens.

Transparency and accountability are essential to strengthen the fabric of a nation.

The gap between the haves and the have nots must be a healthy one.

A healthy nation is one that is inclusive where the people do not feel a sense of alienation and isolation.

Rights and duties being complimentary should be followed by one and all.

People should be encouraged to work for the basic amenities of life.

Work culture must be a part and parcel of life.

A nation that respects its flora and fauna and in communion with lives close to nature will be both healthy and happy.

The real wealth of a nation lies in the happiness levels of its citizens.

Respect for art and culture and history play a pivotal role in uniting the people.

It is neither the size nor the economy of a nation that is conducive / contributing to health and happiness.

In the ultimate analysis good leadership, a sense of responsibility in the citizens and a proper flow of benefits to all sections of society promotes confidence and happiness.

The real criterion of a healthy nation is the involvement of its people in day to day activities with a spirit of enthusiasm and positivity.

A robust economy, healthy and hardworking citizens with good levels of literacy and ample opportunities for creativity lead to a sense of fulfillment.




A healthy mind and a healthy body

A healthy mind and a healthy body:

Health is in your hands.

Physical health and mental health are two important components of health.

Physical health involves healthy, hygienic life-style.

Proper diet, regular timings, exercise and adequate rest are crucial for health.

Poverty is one of the greatest setbacks to health.

Pollution and climate change result in health hazards.

Over dependence on medication has to be monitored.

Self-medication with over the counter drugs is harmful.

Allopathy, homoeopathy, naturopathy, ayurveda are different forms of medication and treatment.

Stress is one of the major factors that influences health.

The fast pace of modern living induces stress.

Work-life balance creates stress.

Working long hours and trying to meet strict deadlines can be challenging.

Work pressure, stiff competition and over ambitious goals trigger unhappiness and create pressure.

Children experience stress due to unrealistic expectations from parents.

Peer pressure and desire for wealth and high-class living is very rampant.

The tendency towards superficial living is becoming a fashion.

Life-style has to be monitored.

The simple joys of life have to be experienced and enjoyed.

It is important to learn to relax.

The power of silence has to be cultivated and explored.

Ailments like stress diabetics are on the rise.

Alternative medicine has to be used with scientific awareness.

Positive thinking goes a long way in strengthening health.

A pure and healthy ambience can be created with simple living and high thinking.

Anxiety and restlessness lead to hormonal imbalance.

All said and done, a peaceful life leads to a healthy life.

Tensions, worries and anxieties have to be replaced with acceptance and contentment.

Living on an intellectual and spiritual plane elevates the mind and strengthens the body.

People in the past comparatively led a more peaceful and healthy life.

Technological advances and proliferation of diseases sum to be proceeding hand in hand.

The outbreak of epidemics and pandemics serve as a reminder to humanity to be humane.

People living a life of purity are not immune to disease.

People like Stephen Hawking show us that the power of the mind is greater than that of the physical body.

A disciplined life is the key to happiness.

Health is Wealth


The prosperity and happiness level of a nation hinges upon education and health care facilities.

The most important aspect of health is based on proper nutrition and diet.

It is essential to ensure that the food supply chain is kept intact.

Junk food should be avoided.

Unhealthy food and indiscriminate eating habits lead to obesity, diabetes and cardiac problems.

Obesity is one of the greatest challenges in present day society.

Over-dependence on a diet of convenience foods results in problems of health.

A sedentary life style has a negative effect on health.

Exercise is a must for healthy living.

The increasing number of desk jobs results in greater inactivity which is a health hazard.

Addiction to the television results in obesity.

Children playing video games tend to give up playing outdoors.

People spend more time indoors than out in the open.

Walking is something that is never in the dictionary.

Public health system must be accorded the greatest priority.

Health care should be free of cost or made affordable to the needy.

A good health care system instils confidence and promotes a sense of equality.

The public health care system should be on par with the private health care system.

The private health care system though expensive is more comfortable.

The private health care system caters to the affluent.

The dichotomy between public and private health care must be bridged.

Greater awareness, a nutritive diet and adequate exercise are the need of the day.

The mid-day meal scheme in schools strives to provide a nutritious diet to children.

Insistence on games and sports in schools results in exercise and better health.

Home-remedies for common ailments must be encouraged.

Seasonal fruits and vegetables must be integral to the daily menu.

The Indian cuisine is one of the healthiest cuisines in the world.


Vocabulary and phrases:

Hinges upon = rests upon / depends upon

The economy hinges upon the purchasing power of the people.


Intact = kept properly / undamaged in any way

The flower-vase remained intact despite rough handling.


Indiscriminate = without thought or care

Now-a-days, people spend money in an indiscriminate manner.


Sedentary = without moving

People have been used to a sedentary life-style.


Addiction = getting used to

Children are becoming addicted to computer games.


Accorded = given

The singer was accorded a rousing reception.


Integral part of = necessary

Eating is an integral part of life.

Household Chores

Household Chores:

Life is based on give and take. You may have an aversion to some chores, but they are an indispensable part of life. Chores should neither be gendered nor divided into earning and non-earning category.

Household chores ………..daily household chores ………………….. weekly chores……………………….

Some useful phrases:

Make the bed, sweep the yard, help with the cooking, lay the table, clear the table, clean the stove, clean the sink, wash the dishes, load / empty the dishwasher, take out the garbage, dust the furniture, tidy up the closet, clean up the room, mop the floor, clean the bathroom, prepare breakfast / lunch / dinner, prepare a meal, take care of pets, walk the dog, wash the clothes, to put clothes in the dryer, to put clothes in the washing machine, hang up the washing, fold the clothes, water the plants, vacuum the carpet, dust the cupboard, go shopping, …………..

Note: Fix up the house / apartment / room  

It can mean two things.

1.To repair something

2. To make something look nice

Think and answer:

Can you name some chores that need to be done every day?

Do you like to clean up your room?

Do you wash the dishes in your house?

What are some chores you do outside your house?

Do you do ironing your clothes?

What is something you hate doing when you get home?

Which chores do you not like to do? If you could have a robot to do all your chores, what would you want it to do?

If you could buy only one of these two things, would you choose a dishwasher or a washing machine?

Have you ever had an empty fridge for a long time only because you were too lazy to go grocery shopping?


Read and understand:

Doing household chores on a daily basis is an amazing way to remain well-toned and healthy.

Doing household chores gives you a chance to exercise. This means that you include some simple exercises while you are doing your housework such as mopping, cleaning, ironing and so on.

Making the bed includes multiple tasks like pulling out the sheets, dusting or turning over the mattress, tucking in the bed spreads and straightening them and fluffing the pillows.  This   helps in toning the upper body.

In kitchen – scrubbing the stove tops and other kitchen counter tops is a great way to help flex your arm muscles.

Washing the utensils with your hands instead of using the dishwasher is a good way to exercise your fingers.

Washing and Ironing: Washing clothes the traditional way is an excellent form of exercise. If you cannot devote time to the entire washing procedure at least do part of it like rinsing or drying. While rinsing the clothes you need to bend frequently. Wringing the clothes is a great toning up exercise for the arms. Hanging out the clothes to dry helps to stretch out. Ironing is a good way to put the shoulder, neck and upper body muscles into use.

Walking your pet provides exercise and a sense of bonding that money can never get. Nature makes you feel calm and peaceful.

Here’s how to wash the car – reach out to the top of the car and use a sponge to clean it. Squat on the floor while cleaning the tyres. Do not use a water-hose for a final wash. Bend and pick the water from a tub and wash.  This helps in stretching your body.

Juggling between work at office and work at home can be taxing. It is essential to find simple inexpensive ways to maintain a balance. Nothing can be simpler than having a schedule and learning to find joy in the simple tasks of everyday life.

The home should be a place of shared responsibilities.



Eco-tourism is a concept that has been catching on in the present days.

There are various factors that promote Eco-tourism.

The first is that there is a growing interest in the natural environment.

Then there is a corresponding recognition of the importance of conserving natural environment.

It has long term benefits to the climate, which in turn improves favorable weather .

The forest cover is increased due to responsible tourism.

Natural resources are preserved and protected.

Eco-tourism is primarily travel to study and admire the pristine beauty of nature and to conserve the fragile areas.

It is a joint learning experience in sustainable tourism and environmental management.

Eco-tourism stresses the appropriate use of all resources and also emphasizes community development.

It involves local people and (thus provided benefit to them) improves them.

It is a positive experience for both visitors and locals.

It is important to ensure that Eco-tourism does not become commercial tourism.

However, since money goes directly into the local communities, it can help in promoting nature art and culture.

The biodiversity of nature is protected and there will be dissemination of information regarding the conditions of the local communities.

Guided tours with a sense of responsibility rather than monetary consideration are of paramount importance.

The safaris and boating should be more for educational rather than recreational purposes.

The primary focus of Eco-tourism is not on entertainment but on understanding and getting closer to nature.


Vocabulary and phrases:

Catching in = becoming popular

Conserving = protecting

Benefits = uses

Preserved = kept intact

Pristine = pure

Fragile = delicate

Appropriate = correct

Ensure = safeguard

Dissemination = spread

Paramount = greatest





Over the years tourism has gained a lot of popularity.

In a country like India, every place has some kind of historical or cultural significance.

There is a tendency to combine a pilgrimage with tourism and sightseeing.

Whereas the South is famous for temples’ exquisite architecture, the North is known for forts and palaces. Besides temples and places of worship, the fascinating pilgrim centers in the Himalayan regions attract people from all parts of the country.

Each place has a legend associated with it.

The beauty of the mountains and increase in facilities for accommodation and transportation entice large number of tourists.

Guided tours, package tours, tour operators providing extra discounts are tempting factors promoting travel.

People today are more inclined to travel than in the past.

The nuclear family system makes travel  more affordable.

National seminars and conferences include a tour or sightseeing in the agenda.

Tourism boosts the economy.

One of the side effects of tourism is littering.

The discarded plastic and the carbon footprint can damage the ecosystem and increase pollution.

With travel to space becoming easier, tourism on earth cannot lag behind.

The Hospitality Industry plays a major role in tourism.

Tourism promotes employment and mirrors the diversity in the country.

Tourism provides a window to the world.


Vocabulary and phrases:

Over the years = passing of time

Significance = importance

Combine = put together

Exquisite= beautiful / wonderful

Fascinating = attractive

Attract = draw / tempt

Legend = story associated with the past

Entice = tempt / attract

More inclined = ready / willing

Affordable = not beyond one’s reach / can get

Boosts = increases / encourages / strengthens

Littering = making the place dirty

Discard = throw away

Lag behind = stay back

Hospitality industry = hotels / restaurants

Mirrors = reflects / shows

Diversity = differences

Window to = to show

Education for Life

Education for Life :

   ‘ Education  is the manifestation of the divinity within man’

Minimum compulsory education should be free.

Learning the three R`s should be mandatory.

Skill based education should be easily available.

Field trips and excursions should be encouraged.

Open book system can boost levels of learning.

                             Merit and industry should be given top priority.

Government infrastructure and facilities play a crucial role in education.

The grading system should be popularised.

Social service should be community service done with involvement and integrity.

Games and sports should be mandatory.

Classroom libraries, gardening, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities help in strengthening personality.

                                   The process of learning must be an enjoyable experience.

The marking system can lead to unhealthy competition and rivalry.

Learning by rote can be replaced by physical activity and creative thinking, thus bringing in an element of curiosity and affinity with nature.

Over dependence on computers in education results in plagiarism.

Cut, copy, paste becomes common.

Creativity and original thinking is stifled.

                                          Practical learning should supersede theoretical learning.

                                                   Learning should be for life, not for a living.



Priority = precedence

Crucial = decisive / essential

Affinity = likeness / kinship

Supersede = take the place of

Plagiarism = copying / breach of copyright

Stifled = suppressed / subdued

Lead to = direct to / show the way

Bring in = introduce

Result in = outcome

Help in = aid / assist / facilitate