Home » Vocabulary

Category Archives: Vocabulary



Antonym is a  word that means the opposite of another word.      ‘good’ is an antonym of ‘bad.’

accept x refuse kind x cruel
ability 1nability  knowledge x Ignorance
acceptance x refusal/rejection  lack x Abundance
Advance X Retreat  .law x Inequity
adversity X Prosperity  length x Width
affluence X Poverty  .Liberty X Slavery
ancestor X Descendant  Master X Servant
Aristocracy X Democracy  Melody X discord









X oblivion
Arrival X Departure Miser X Spendthrift
Ascent X Descent Mistress X Maid
Attachment X Detachment Motion X Rest
Attack X Defense night X day
bring x take new x old
Body X Soul Pain X Pleasure
Boon X Bane Patriot X Traitor
Brave X Coward Peace X War
Care X Neglect Plaintiff X Defendant
Confidence X Diffidence Poetry X Prose
Consent X Dissent Poison X Antidote
Creation X Destruction Praise X Blame
Debit X Credit predecessor X Successor
Debtor X Creditor Presence X Absence
Defense X Offense Pride X Humility
Deficit X Surplus Prosperity X Adversity
Dwarf X Giant Punishment X Reward
Elevation X Depression Question X Answer
Enjoyment X Suffering Recovery X Relapse
Entrance X Exit Right X Left/wrong
Failure X Success roar x Whisper
Flattery X Detraction Ruler X Subject
Fortune X Misfortune Saint X Sinner
Freedom X Slavery Simplicity X Complexity/


Friend X Enemy Smile X Sigh
Front X Rear Storm X Calm
gain X Loss Synthesis X Analysis
glory X Shame Theory X Practice
gratitude X Ingratitude Time X Eternity
guest X Host Top X Bottom
happiness X Misery Tragedy X comedy
haste X leisure Unity X Diversity
head X Tail/foot Use X Abuse
heaven x Hell/earth Victory X Defeat
hero x villain Violence X Non-violence
honour x dishonour Virtue X Vice
hope x Hopeless/despair Volunteer X Conscript
imagination x reality Water X Land
Whole X Part Foreign X Native
Wisdom X Folly Frank X Reserved
Word X Deed Friendly X Hostile
Work X Rest Fresh X Stale
Absolute X Relative Full X Empty
Abstract X Concrete Gain X Lose
Absurd X Reasonable Genuine X Spurious
Active X Passive  General X Particular
Affirmative X Negative Special X Polite
Ancient X Modern Hard X Soft/easy
Animate X Inanimate Heavy X Light
Barren X Fertile High X Low
Barbaric X Civil Honest X Dishonest/corrupt
Beautiful X Ugly Hot X Cold
Beneficial X Harmful humble X Proud/haughty
Big X Little Ill X Well
Blunt X Sharp Immanent X Transcendent
Brave(ry) X Coward(ice) Important X Unimportant
Busy X Idle Industrious X Idle
Broad X Broad Innocent X Guilty










Civilized X Uncivilized/wild  Kind X Cruel
Cheap X Dear Liberal X Conservative
cheerful X Gloomy Literate X Illiterate
clean X Dirty Literal X Figurative
clothed X Naked Logical X Illogical
common X Uncommon/rare Long X Short
concise X Elaborate Loud X Soft/low
cooked X Raw Male X Female
courageous X Timid Masculine X Feminine
dark X Light Material X Spiritual
Deep X Shallow Maximum X Minimum
Difficult X Easy mighty X  weak
Domestic X Wild Mortal X Immortal
Dull X Bright/interesting Native X Foreign
eligible X Ineligible Natural X Unnatural
Exotic X Indigenous New X Old
Explicit X Implicit Noble X Ignoble
Fair X Foul Nominal X Real/actual
False X True Objective X Subjective
Famous X Notorious/


Obverse X Reverse
Fast X Loose Odd X Even
Fine X Coarse Oral X Written
Fir X Flaccid original X Duplicate
flexible X Rigid polite X impolite
warm x Cool Vertical X Horizontal
wet x Dry Vigorous X Feeble
white x Black Voluntary X compulsory
weak x strong wild x tame
pure x polluted thoughtful x thoughtless
Positive X negative thick X thin
progressive X Retrogressive Laugh X Weep/cry
Quick X Slow Lead X Follow
Quiet X Noisy Like X Dislike
Rash X Cautious Love X Hate
Rational X Irrational Offer X Offer
Raw X Ripe Open X Open
Relative X Absolute Precede X Succeed/follow
Religious X Secular Rejoice X Lament
Rough X Smooth Remember X Forget
Sacred X Profane Reveal X Conceal
Sensitive X Callous Resist X Submit/surrender
Severe X Mild Sleep X Awake
Sick X Well Sink X Float
Sprightly X Dull teach X learn
Straight X Crooked/curved here X There
Strange X Familiar Now X Then
Strong X Weak Often X Seldom
Strict X Lenient Above X Below/beneath
Superior X Inferior At home X Abroad
Sweet X Sour/bitter For X Against
Tall X Short In X Out
Accept X Reject Off X On
Accuse X Defend Over X Under
Acquit X Convict/condemn up X down
Admit X Discharge/repudiate Abandon X Keep
Agree X Disagree/differ Abolish X Establish
Allow X Forbid Above X Below
Arrest X Release/free Abundance X Scarcity
Attract X Distract/repel Abstract X Concrete
Begin X End Acquit X Convict
Buy X Sell Admit X Expel
Compare X contrast Admire X Despise
Confess X Deny Adversity X Prosperity
Consent X Dissent Admonish X Praise
Create X Destroy Affirm X Deny
Earn X Spend Agreeable X Disagreeable
Encourage X Discourage Artificial X Natural
Expedite X Delay Ascend X Descend
Gather X Scatter Assent X Dissent
Go X Come Awake X Asleep
hide X Seek Asset X Liability
Vague X Definite Always X Never
wise x Foolish Attack X Defend
Hit x miss Arrogant X Humble
import x export awkward X Beautiful
Include x Exclude Alien X Native
increase x decrease Ample X Scanty
insert x Delete Amateur X Professional


Try to make sentences with the words given above.

It is easy to  exclude people from a conversation.

It is a good policy to include all the members in a discussion.












Homonyms and Homophones


                          HOMONYMS AND HOMOPHONES

Homonym is a word that sounds the same as another word but differs in meaning. Homonyms can refer to both homophones and homographs.

homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning and is spelled differently.

Homographs are words with the same spelling but having more than one meaning.

Homonym– Example- see -sea

Homograph -Example- band- band

Study the meaning and spelling of the words



advice guidance advise recommend



 alcoholic drink ail sick
alms charity arms  

part of the body










sacred place of worship





agree ascent  

to climb


band a group banned prevented,


bear animal,

to carry a weight

to tolerate

bare naked,





freedom against secrecy ,   to bring out


bale a heap or a bundle, eg. cotton
birth give life to berth sleeping place
bridal pertaining to a bride bridle control
blue colour blew  

to use pressure ,air




destroy brake to put a stop to
bred brought up bread food



to ask for  to propagate, canvas a board for painting , material
cease stop seize  

to catch with force


course path, a sphere of study coarse rough
coat item of clothing put on ,

to cover

court an institution for justice,

to run after


council a group of persons counsel give advice
desert arid land no water, to leave dessert  

fruit taken after a meal


die come to an end dye to colour
dissent disagree descent  

climb down



two , double


fight between two


flour fine powder floor ground
foul bad fowl bird
 fair  honest, just,

light coloured,

a place where all goods are sold

 fare  cost of a ticket,






 big grate grate flour to fine powder , grate vegetables
hail greet hale strong wind and rain
hole opening whole full
hoard to collect horde large crowd
lessen decrease lesson something to study
loan lend, borrow lone single



post male masculine
main most imp mien thick hair
maize corn maze confused, puzzle made of confusing paths
metal object mettle  

integrity ,strength


might possible mite a small amount



part of day , dark knight an important person
ore metal oar  pole to row a boat
pair two pear fruit, pare
pale lack of colour pail a bucket
peace calm piece small amount


peak topmost point peek a small glance
plain simple plane vehicle of transport,

a flat surface


plays dramas/games place  

a location


pole  a  post poll survey
pour to distribute pore an opening in the body

to look with concentration


pray a petition prey  

to depend on



principal main person, main amount principle  










reward/ award price cost
rain down pour reign rule
rein control , a strap for controlling a horse
raise to heighten race  

a run , a      community


raze to destroy
rite a custom write to note
right correct right direction
role a part roll  a list,  to move around


sale to buy or sell sail  


to move forward



sell to make a deal cell  

a part of the body,

a small room in a prison


sight view site a place
cite to quote


single soul  

atman : inner part, that which resides within


sore   angry soar  

fly high


sour bitter
stationery books, papers etc stationary  

still , no movement





rob steel metal
story a tale storey  

part of a building





in one direction strait narrow
tale story tail to follow, an appendage at the back of the body
tied to bind tide to get over, a part of water
veil covering vale a place , a valley
wail to cry
vine grape creeper wine a drink
whine to complain
vile wicked while during
wait to expect something to happen weight  





waste  unwanted, unnecessary, useless waist  

part of the body


wave ripple on the sea

surge in activity

moving the hand

waive to give up something

to refrain from


weak not strong week days
whole full or complete hole an opening
yoke  to tie yolk Inner part of egg


Make sentences with the words .

Bring out your creativity..

This is a tale of a cat without a tail.

Don’t whine for wine.

I want to see the sea.

You can sell the cell.

The robber wanted to steal the steel box.

It’s not right to follow rites in a blind fashion.

He was the lone individual to take a loan.






Words in different parts of speech

Same words with different meanings.

Read and understand the sentences.

Air          :               This air is pure.

You should not always air your views.

Don’t put on airs.

Bar         :               I want a bar of chocolate.

Don’t bar him from entering the room.

He is practicing in the bar.

Book      :               Please give me your book.

I want to book my ticket.

The police tried to book the thief.

Bank      :               Don’t bank on him.

He loves to sit on the bank of the river.

You have to open an account in the bank.

Act         :               I love to act in plays.

Don’t try to act smart.

This is a one- act play.

Principal:              Who is the principal of your college?

I want to keep the principal intact.

Please credit the interest on the principal into my account.

Place     :              From which place do you come?

What place did you secure?

Account                   I want to open an account.

He gave an interesting account of his journey.

It is good to maintain an account.

He lost his grade on account of his illness.

Let us place him in the accounts department.

Count:                 Can you count the birds on the tree?

Don’t count on him. He will not join us.

On which count are you punishing him?

Race      :             They are from a primitive race.

I always participate in the race.

Face       :             Wash your face.

I cannot face him.

Plant      :             The plant has withered.

Please don’t plant such ideas in his mind.

The plant has been closed down.

Industry:              The secret of success lies in industry.

The industry is on a profit spree.

Hand     :              Wash your hand.

Give me a hand please.

The thief gave the police a hand.

He has no hand in this matter.

Trace     :           The police could not trace him.

Trace the map.

The thief did not leave any trace for the police.

Interest              She has an abiding interest in painting.

What is the present rate of interest?

Play        :           I love to play chess.

Have you seen the play ‘Harischandra’?

Board:                How much did you pay for your board and lodging.

I have to board the train in a few hours.

Just look at that sign board.

Water:                 Please water the plants.

There is no water in the tank.

The Management tried to water down the project.

Dear      :             Vegetables have become dear.

The matter is dear to my heart.

Drop      :             There isn’t a drop of oil.

Don’t drop the vase.

The Govt. will not drop the issue.

The captain did not want to drop the young player from the team.

Bore      :             I think Geography is a real bore.

You have to bore deep into ground to get water.

He bore the weight with a smile.

Head     :             Don’t turn your head.

Murthy will head the search party.

He has no head for such matters.

I think we have to head towards the north.

Back       :            I have a catch in my back.

When will he be back?

We must back our friends.

Can I back the car here?

Light      :            This bag is very light.

There is no light in the balcony.

The police were unable to throw any light on the crime.

File         :            They walked in a file.

File the papers.

Put the papers in the new file.

It is not easy to file an FIR.

Frame:                 It’s a beautiful frame.

Don’t frame charges on innocent people.

House:                The house is magnificent.

Many valuables are housed in the museum

Block     :            The building blocks the view of the river.

He lives in the second block.

Cover:                The thief took cover in the bushes.

Cover your eyes.

Give me a cover.

Grave:               Don’t look so grave.

This is the grave of  Ruth.

The situation was grave.

Manual:             He does a lot of manual labour.

Do you have the manual?

Sign        :         Sign the letter.

There is no sign of the fishermen.

Pine       :          The pine tree is a sight to see.

The old always pine for the past.

Table     :           Put the book on the table.

The document has to be tabled.

Pen        :           This is a Parker pen.

You must always pen your thoughts.

Point     :             Don’t point your fingers.

The pencil has a sharp point.

There is no point in arguing.

You have a point there.

He was unable to score a single point.

Sleep     :             Don’t sleep over the matter.

I had a good sleep.

Copy      :            Do not copy others

Do you have a copy of this photograph?

Slip         :           Give me a slip of paper.

Be careful, you may slip.

The thief gave a slip to the police.

Bat         :            I have bought a new bat.

There are many bats in this ancient temple.

He did not bat an eyelid.

Wave    :              The wave in the sea looks beautiful.

The leader waved to the crowds

There is a wave of support for him.

Fine       :              The absentees have to pay a fine.

It was a fine deal.

The weather is fine.

Train      :               You should train the horse.

They walked in a train.

I missed the train.

Left        :                Turn to the left.

He left his bag at home.

Pass       :               Please pass the book to me.

You have to pass the mountain.

Will I pass  the driving test?

This too will pass.

Bear       :               Can you bear the weight?

Is that a bear?

Right      :               He is always right.

Use your right hand.

Sound:                  I am in sound health.

What a terrible sound!

Might:                    I might find the treasure.

He is a man of might.

Firm       :               He works in the big firm.

My father is very firm in his views.

Rule       :               This is an important rule.

Asoka’s rule was just.

Match:                  The match was delayed due to rain.

He is no match to Ali.

My parents are on the lookout  for a match for my brother.

Stick       :             Take a big stick.

Stick it on the wall.

Please don’t stick on to old ideas.

Seal        :            Let us seal the deal.

Seal the cover before you post it.

Are there any seals in the river?

Minute:                Wait a minute, won’t you?

Don’t worry about the minute details.

Cold       :             It’s very cold.

She gave him a very cold look.

Fire        :             Light the fire.

Your boss will fire you.

Blow      :              Blow out the candle.

The robber dealt a terrible blow.

Soil         :            This soil is fertile.

Don’t soil your clothes.

Paper    :             I want a sheet of paper.

He presented a paper at the conference

Root      :            Don’t pull out the root.

Look into the root of the matter.

Rock      :            That’s a beautiful rock.

Rock the cradle.

Fare       :            What’s the fare to Chennai?

The hostel fare is good.

Gun       :             He is a big gun.

The robber was armed with a gun.

Field      :             The farmer lost his field.

The Minister refused to field any questions.

The players left the field.

Paint      :               Is there any paint left?

Don’t paint him as a coward.

Star        :              He is the star attraction of the crowd.

He did not star in the film.

Did you see the falling star?

Mine     :               He is a mine of information.

That book is mine.

He works in a mine.

Mind     :               My mind is in a turmoil.

Please don’t mind me.

Farm      :             I want an application form.

It’s difficult to form an opinion.

You must be in form.

Please form a circle.

Account               I want to open an account.

It is good to maintain an account.

He lost his grade on account of his illness.

He gave an interesting account of his journey

Notice. :              I did not notice the change.

I have to give one month notice to my boss.

Have you read the notice?


Try to make different sentences with the words given above.





Words often confused

Same words having different meaning

Words often confused

Air          :               This air is pure.

                                You should not always air your views.

                                Don’t put on airs.

Bar         :               I want a bar of chocolate.

                                Don’t bar him from entering the room.

                                He is practicing in the bar.

Book      :               Please give me your book.

                                I want to book my ticket.

                                The police tried to book the thief.

Bank      :               Don’t bank on him.

                                He loves to sit on the bank of the river.

                                You have to open an account in the bank.

Act         :               I love to act in plays.

                                Don’t try to act smart.

                                This is a one- act play.

Principal:              Who is the principal of your college?

                                I want to keep the principal intact.

                            Please credit the interest on the principal into my account.

Place     :               From which place do you come?

                                What place did you secure?

                                Let us place him in the accounts department.

Rhyming words-Exercise

Read the sentences out aloud. Fill in the blank with the word that rhymes with the word in italics:-

1. I don’t care for the _________. ( animal )

2. Don’t stare like a __________. ( animal)

3. Name and fame are the ________. ( alike or similar )

4. All his mail has been put up for ______ ( money transaction )

5. Be calm and give your ____________. ( part of the hand )

6. Early or late you have to ________ (stay for some time, linger on )

7. He was told to be ______. ( to have courage )

8. He wants to run for _______. ( to be happy, to enjoy oneself )

9. They won by a _________. ( action in a game- cricket )

10.  Put off the light before you  _______. ( quarrel )


  1. bear,
  2. bear
  3. same
  4. sale
  5. palm
  6. wait
  7. bold
  8. fun
  9. run
  10. fight


Read the words .Learn the spellings and use them in sentences of your own.


Power, strength, forceUseful, advantageous, expedient
Knowledge, learning, wisdomSorrow, grief, agony, anguish
Anger, wrath, resentmentGain, attain, achieve
Absurd, funny, ridiculousCurse, bane, harm, hurt
Build, erect, constructExile, banish, exile, extradite
Brave, courageous, gallantSuffer, bear, endure
Respect, deference, reverenceBelief, faith, trust
Timid, shy, diffidentProfit, benefit, gain
Frank, candid, ingenuousBuild, make, construct, develop, create, synthesize
Event, occurrenceBusy, engaged, occupied
Unnecessary, needlessFrank, outspoken, candid
Clear, evidentArrest, apprehend, capture
Tell, say, describe, illustrate, elaborateDefend, protect, save, security
Adversity, calamity, miseryPure, chaste, virtuous
Imagination, fancyHide, conceal, disguise, cover
Polite, civil, courteousPraise, applaud, commend
Cunning, crafty, deceitfulConcern, anxiety, worry
Pardon, forgive, excuse, apologyGoal, destination, target
Faith, belief, credulityWill, determination, resolution, perseverance
Solitude, loneliness, desolationDisciple, pupil, student
Envy, jealousyDevotee, worshipper, votary
Tyrant, despot, autocratDisaster, tragedy, catastrophe
Understand, comprehendDiscard, reject, throwaway, trash, scrap
Gentle, tender, kindDiscord, disagreement, deny, reject
See, look, beholdDiscover, find, discern, excavate, dig
Return, restore, retreat, comebackDisgrace, dishonor, insult
danger, peril, hazardShow, exhibit, display, disclose
figure, type, symbolDispute, quarrel, controversy, conflict, fight
Enemy, foe, opponentDistress, trouble, grief, sorrow, misery, woe
Censure, reprimand, criticizeDistribute, divide, share
Savage, barbarian,Divine, Godlike, superhuman
Couple, pair, twinsFearful, awful, dreadful, frightful, horrifying, scary
Remember, recollect, recapitulate, reviseAttack, assault, aggression
Vacant, empty, void, desert, clear, vogueRise, elevation, ascent, hike, resurrect
Increase, enlarge, augmentRude, insolent, impertinent
Instigate, provoke, incite, inculcateGive up, forsake, abandon, desert
Regret, lament, deploreHelp, aid, support
Rare, scarce, feel badSkilful, adept, expert, apt
Hate, despise, scorn, detestConfess, acknowledge, admit,
Recover, regain,Clash, conflict, controversy
Strict, harsh, severeWin, conquer, overcome, achieve, succeed
Brief, concise, terse, shortConvict, criminal, captive, culprit
Wit, humorAdequate, ample, copious, enough, sufficient
Mistake, error, blunder, crime, defect, fault, mistake,Corrupt, dishonest, pervert
Cleverness, dexterity, skillGrow, cultivate, develop, improve
Prejudice, biasCurtail, reduce, shorten, lessen, nip, curb, cut
Dislike, hatred, aversion, detestDead, obsolete, extinct, gone
Pride, arrogance, insolenceDecide, settle, finalize
Deduce, infer, concludeDeed, action, work
Deliver, redeem, rescueDefer, delay postpone
Dejection, despair, despondency, dismay, disappointmentDenounce, censure, accuse
Demolish, destroy, wreck, ruinDepict, exhibit, show, expose
Serious, earnest, solemnJoy, ecstasy, bliss
Effort, attempt, endeavorEmerge, arise, come forth
Encourage, inspire, emboldenEndure, suffer, sustain
Huge, enormous, stupendousEnthusiasm, zeal, fervor
Entreat, implore, requestAbolish, eradicate, uproot, exterminate, remove
Eternal, everlasting, perpetualFade, dim, vanish, dull, gloomy, light
Faint, swoon, dimFatal, deadly, lethal,
Fame, renown, repute, honorViolent, fierce
Stupid, dull, monotonousDynamic, vigorous, forceful
Courage, patience, enduranceGift, present
Gloom, darkness, dejection, dismay, dullFearful, gruesome, ghastly
Hardship, difficulty, calamityProud, haughty, arrogant
Haven, refuge, shelterHomage, respect, tribute
Horror, dead, terrorKind, tender, merciful
Modest, humble, submissiveIdeal, model, example
Ignoble, vile, detestableIllustrious, famous, renown
Immense, vast, great, huge, giganticImmortal, divine, everlasting, never-ending
Impediment, obstacle, hindrance, hurdleContinual, unceasing, incessant, nonstop, unending
Obvious, clear, evidentOffense, affront
Officious, interferingOppressive, tyrannical, cruel
Oust, evict, remove, eradicate, clear, exterminateCriminal, outlaw
Outstanding, remarkable, markOvercome, conquer, defeat
Pact, treaty, agreementPeak, summit, apex, top
Pensive, thoughtful, reflective, ponderEverlasting, perennial, endless
Perpetual, eternal, ceaselessPierce, penetrate, prick, move through, permeate, suck
Plausible, credible, believable, probablePlead, urge, solicit
Pledge, promise, vow, oathPonder, think reflect
Forbid, prohibitFreedom, liberty, independence
Indifference, apathy, unconcernIndustrious, diligent
Abbreviate, abridge, shortenAbhor, detest, hate, despise
Affinity, sympathy, kinshipAbundant, copious, ample, plentiful, profuse, bounteous
Accelerate, hasten, quickenAccomplish, fulfill, perform, do, complete, achieve, attain, effect
Adversary, enemy, opponentAccumulate, amass, collect, store, gather
Accuse, impeach, arraignAdversity, misfortune, calamity
Affliction, trouble, distress, pain, misery, sorrow, grief, calamity, misfortune, disease, sufferingAgitation, disturbance, perturbation, commotion, excitement
Allure, attract, charm, fascinate, entice, tempt, lureAnguish, pain, agony, suffering
Appease, pacify, assuage, mitigate, allay, calmAversion, dislike, hatred, repulsion, antipathy, repugnance
Benevolent, charitable, kind, philanthropic, good-natured, generousBright, brilliant, jubilant, lustrous, lucid, splendid, glaring, gay, intelligent
Conspicuous, prominent, salient, striking, notable, noticeable, remarkable, outstandingDangerous, risky, perilous, hazardous, precarious, delicate
Deteriorate, degenerate, declineEmancipate, free, liberate, deliver, inspire
Eradicate, eliminate, exterminate, Destroy, uprootExtravagant, profuse, lavish, prodigal, spend-thrift, Wasteful, profligate, excessive
Felicity, happiness, blissFerocious, fierce, savage, barbarous
Formidable, fearful, dreadful, dangerous, difficult, impassableFortitude, endurance, resolution, courage
Frailty, weakness, failing, foibleGratification, enjoyment, satisfaction
Humility, modesty, politenessImminent, threatening, impending
Impertinent, authoritative, dictatorialImpetuous, violent, ardent, vehement, ferocious, frantic, furious
Imposter, humbug, swindler, quackInvasion, attack, intrusion, incursion, visitation, encroachment
Laborious, assiduous, industriousLatent, dormant, hidden
Laudable, praiseworthy, commendatory, complimentary, panegyric, eulogisticLethargy, laziness, sluggishness, indolence, sloth
Malevolent, malign, malignant, virulent, hateful, evil, maliciousMitigate, appease, alleviate, soften, soothe, allay, relieve
Monotonous, boring, dull, flat, wearisome, drearyObliterate, destroy, efface
Obsequious, servile, slavishPacify, appease, propitiate, soothe, mollify

Idioms and Phrases

Read the sentences and check out the meaning of the idioms and phrases.

  1. Kavitha bought a cat
    Ravi brought a dog.
    They began to lead a cat and dog life.
    Always quarelling with each other
  2. He lies on the bed
    He made it himself
    He lies in the bed he has made.
  3. The birds made a nest.
    They made it with feathers
    He is suspected of feathering his own nest.
  4. Mr.Right and Mr.Left burnt a candle
    Mr.Right on one end and Mr.left on the other.
    I am afraid they are burning the candle at both ends.
  5. Look at his hands
    They are full.
    His hands are full.
  6. I have only two hands
    But many things to do.
    I have many projects on my hand.
  7. Here is the ink pad
    Put you thumb on it.
    He is under the thumb of his wife.
  8. Why did you close the door?
    To keep the wolf away
    Many educated young men find it difficult to keep the wolf away from the door.( Keep away starvation)
  9. He said he was going out on business
    It was a night, pitch dark, and the streets deserted
    He leapt in the dark (Without knowing the result midnight) to save the robber in the dead of night (Midnight).

Read the sentences and check out the meaning of the idioms and phrases.

  1. He took up the case.
    He argued it.
    He did not consider the pros and cons of the case.
  2. She served the sick
    Working through thick and thin.
    And wears the blue ribbon of service in the TB organization.
  3. The boy was generous.
    He gave away all he had.
    The boy has almost run through his fortune.
  4. I saw a stranger
    He ran into a house.
    The man was caught after a hot chase and run in.
  5. He has a spoon in his mouth.
    It is of silver.
    The young fellow was born with a silver spoon in his mouth.
  6. He lit the lamp.
    It’s light dispelled darkness.
    He made light of his father’s warning.
  7. That man changes his clothes every day.
    He changes his religion too.
    The poor embrace any religion in a jiffy.
  8. The pied piper led the rats.
    But when refused to be paid his due, he led the children too.
    He refused to be led by the nose.
  9. She is a maiden.
    She gave a speech.
    As a maiden speech the attempt was good.
  10. The speech was short.
    It drew everybody’s attention to the seriousness of the matter.
    The laconic speech made everyone tongue-tied.

Read the sentences and check out the meaning of the idioms and phrases.

We locked the door and went out.
We found the door open.
The burglars broke into the house.

The manager was cross.
The employee was dismissed.
He was a black sheep in the company.

Who do you think would be the next CM?
There are no efficient ministers.
This is the burning question of the day.

The carpenter did not use a ruler.
He used his fingers for measurement.
The country carpenters always do things by the rule of thumb.
Any rough process of measurement

Two ladies appeared to be close friends.
One was cunning and the other a simpleton.
The cunning friend tried to gain promotion by making a cat’s paw of the simpleton.
To use another to accomplish one’s ends.

The boy behaved like a clown.
Everyone laughed at him.
He made himself a laughing stock by his clownish behavior.
Object of ridicule


Let’s learn to make di-syllabic, tri-syllabic and polysyllabic words.

1. A right understanding of the syllabification helps in understanding the spelling and pronunciation of the word. Make new words adding ‘er’ or ‘or’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Act, achieve, tract, teach, law, paint, sculpt, sing, play, dance, direct, lead, farm, train, teach, law, pot, bake, write, preach, garden, paint, read, shoot, hunt, rend, vote, create, direct, produce, collect, announce, prison, observe, follow, inform, build, attend, manage, employ, interview, labour, begin, distribute, rectify, retain, sin, boil, creep, lend, borrow, reform, remind, travel, garden, farm, print.

2. Make new words adding ‘ion’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Attract, content, confuse, direct, distinct, devote, perfect, posses, perfect, migrate, correct, select, reject, instruct, construct, , defect, devote, diffuse, direct, except, exert, infect, prevent, prohibit, locate, migrate, progress, protect, rebel, select, suggest, submit,

3. Make new words adding ‘ty’ or ‘ity’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Active, certain, crude, cruel, human, moral, complex, public, fertile, regular, scarce, special, frail, legal, loyal, punctual, rapid, real, vital, vulgar,

4. Make new words adding ‘ance’ or ‘ence’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Interfere, infer, observe, accept, adhere, annoy, allow, appear, emerge, defer, disturb , depend, prefer, persist, refer,

5. Make new words adding ‘ment’ and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Achieve, agree, align, amaze, amend, amuse, announce, attain, commit, confine, derail, embarrass, employ, harass, induce, indict, impede, punish, treat, state,

6. Make new words adding ‘ful’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Art, beauty, care, cheer, faith, harm, duty, force, joy, , pain, peace, play, power, truth, fright, sin, hand, mouth, thought, watch,

7. Make new words adding ‘al’ or ‘ual’ at the end of the word and make new words. Sometimes the spelling has to be checked:-

Act, critic, culture, fact, historic, practice, function, economic, education, monument, parent, universe, withdraw,

Rhyming Words

Vocabulary is the heart of a language. It is learnt through different methods. The first method is that of listening and repeating. Oral drilling is the simplest, easiest and best method, which enables the learner to understand the pronunciation. The most basic aspect of learning a language is to know and articulate words. Then comes spelling and usage.

A play way method of building, testing and absorbing vocabulary is the use of rhyming words. Oral drilling and practice, followed by learning the spelling and meaning is essential. It can be done with all the students in the class as a whole. The class can also be divided into groups. You can use the black board. If in the classroom, without a computer, keep a dictionary handy.

The key word is given. Students or each group will make as many words as possible. A time limit can also be set. Observe the difference in spelling and learn the right meaning of the word. Key Word and rhyming words

  • Air: bare, bear, care, dare fair, fare, hair, hare, mare, pair, pear, pare, rare, stare, tear, wear, ware, where, were
  • Boar: Bore, core, door, fore, four, lore, more, oar, ore, pour, pore, roar, soar, sore, tore, wore
  • Cot: ought, bought, brought, caught, drought, drought, fought, got, hot, lot, not, knot, naught, pot, rot, sort, sought, taught, taut, wart, wrought
  • Dame: aim, came, claim, fame, game, lame, maim, name, same, shame, tame
  • Ear: beer, clear, deer, dear, fear, gear, hear, here, jeer, leer, mere, near, peer, queer, rear, seer, steer, sear, tear, veer
  • Fort: court, coat, dote, goat, jolt, moat, note, port, quote, rote, vote, wrote
  • Gold: bold, cold, fold, hold, old, sold, told,
  • Hill: bill, fill, gill, hill, kill, mill, nil, pill, sill, till, will
  • Ink: brink, blink, drink, link, pink, sink, stink, think, wink
  • Jeep: creep, beep, deep, heap, keep, leap, peep, reap, seep, weep
  • Kite: bite, cite, fight, height, kite, light, might, night, right, site, sight, tight, write
  • Lyre: ire, fire, hire, mire, pyre, pier, sire, tyre, tier, tire, wire
  • May: bay, bray clay, day, gay, hay, lay, neigh, pay, ray, say, weigh
  • Nest: best, fest, jest, lest, pest, quest, rest, test, vest, west
  • Oar: bore, boar, core, door, fore, four, lore, more, ore, pour, pore, roar, soar, sore, tore, wore
  • Peach: beach, each, leech, preach, reach, teach
  • Queen: bean, been, dean, feign, lean, mean, seen, sheen, teen, wean
  • Rye: By, cry, dry, fry, fly, high, I, lie, my, nigh, pie, sigh, tie, try, vie, why
  • Sun: Bun, done, fun, gun, pun, run, son, ton, won
  • Tie: die, dye, fry, fie, high, I, lie, my, nigh, pie, rye, sigh, vie
  • Use: fuse, lose, loose, muse, ruse,
  • Veil: ale, ail, bail, bale, dale, fail, frail, gale, hail, jail, male, mail, pail, pale, quail, rail, sale, tail, tale, wail, whale
  • Weight: eight, sleight, gait,
  • Xmas: extra
  • Yak: back, hack, knack, lack, pack, rack, sack, whack
  • Zoom: boom, broom, doom, fume, groom, loom, room,


  1. Find the difference in meaning and spelling. Sometimes the spelling may be the same, but the meaning changes according to the usage. Identify the words. Make a list:-
    Ex. Bear /bare fair /fare hare /hair pair / pear wear / ware
  2. Learn to use the words in sentences of your own:-
    Ex. This is a bear. (animal) I cannot bear this noise. ( tolerate, put up with )
  3. Ask questions and elicit answers to make the learner familiar with the meaning and usage of words:-
    Ex. Where are the bears? Have you seen bears? They are in the zoo.